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Tuesday, February 19, 2013

Get Pure Gold From Electronic Scrap in One Place

The following presentation will describe the process of refining gold from electronic scrap.   The descriptions and instructions given in text below are supplemented with video taped demonstrations of the process.  The videos are closed captioned, so be sure to click the "CC' in the lower right of the YouTube viewer.

The "no duh" first step is to collect a bunch of electronic scrap.  In this series we focus on simple gold fingered computer connector cards.  Simply shear off the part of the electronic card which contains the visible gold connectors.  Other scrap sources include processor chips and connector pins.  It is best practice to keep each specific type of scrap in separate batches at least until you've gone through the whole process a couple of times.



The cards can still be sold to a scrap yard minus the gold fingers. Watch out for the occasional high end electronics that have gold plated traces under the green paint.

For the second step, here are the materials you will need:

1.  32% HCL (muriatic acid).  This can be found at any pool supply store and some hardware stores.
2.  Two clean five-gallon buckets with lids
3.  PC cards with only the gold connector strips
4.  Safety gear, goggles, latex gloves, eye wash bottle, and baking soda
5.  Filtering station ... for small scale a 12 cup coffee pot and coffee maker will do
6.  Filters and paper napkins
7.  Container to collect paper filters (with gold)
8.  Container for all napkins and used gloves
9.  Jugs to store fluids in.
10. Hot Plate -- MOUNTED OUTDOORS, AWAY FROM ANY METAL
11. 24" plastic stir rod ... half of a wand from mini-blinds will do.

Simply put the IC cards with the gold fingers into the five-gallon bucket and cover with acid.  Some distilled water can be added to raise the level of fluid if needed.  Swish the stuff in the bucket around every day for a week or so.  Of course, be careful with all the fluids.  Once copper starts to dissolve, the fluid will turn green and it will be toxic to people, animals, and especially to fish.  Make sure to keep everything locked away where no neighbor's kid can get to it.

After inspection of the cards reveals that there is no gold on any card, remove the cards.  Squirt them off with distilled water to wash gold as much gold as possible down into the acid bucket.  Now filter the acid in the five-gallon bucket to separate the gold flakes from the copper chloride acid solution.  

Put all filters and gold flakes into a coffee pot and cover with clean 32% HCL.   Bring this to a boil and stir vigorously to break up the paper filters.  Now pour off the acid (save for re-use) . Only gold, paper goo, and a few small fragments remain now

Now we need some more materials:

1.  A second filter station
2.  A small jug for the gold solution
3.  Clorox bleach
4.  (Ice cubes made with distilled water) ...not needed in cool weather

With all the gold foils and insoluble junk in one coffee pot, add more clean 32 % HCL.  If the temperature is over 75 deg in your work area, add a few cubes of ice made from distilled water to help chlorine stay in solution.  Now dribble small amounts of Clorox bleach into the coffee pot while stirring.  Stop with the Clorox if excessive fizzing begins or if the fumes bother you.  Swish it around, let it sit, swish it around again, let it sit overnight, swish it around again.  If it is hot outside, you can set the coffee pot in a cooler with regular ice in it.  The object is to keep chlorine gas, which is released with the Clorox, in your solution.  The chlorine is what reacts with the gold to dissolve it.

Make sure all the gold flakes are dissolved into a golden to golden green solution.   Now we can filter this solution to separate the gold in the solution from all the paper goo and any other insoluble fragments.   Now we have clean clear liquid with AuCl dissolved in it.



Now it is time to get back to a solid form.  Here are the materials we must add to our list now:

1.  Sodium Metabisulfite powder -- Na2S2O5 (readily available on eBay or restaurant supply store).
2.  95% tin solder wire

You can test for the presence of gold in the solution using the stannous chloride test.   It's easy, just allow a strip of tin solder wire to dissolve in a "tiny" cup of HCL ... you only need a few drops really.  Wet a paper napkin with the gold bearing solution, and then dab the stannous chloride solution onto the napkin with a q-tip.  A purplish-brown splotch should appear quickly if gold is present in good concentration.  If the gold test reaction is weak, you should consider trying to dissolve more gold into your solution.

Transfer the solution back to a good coffee pot, preferably an old-school flame proof glass coffee pot.  Bring the solution to a boil for a couple of minutes to drive off excess chlorine gas.  Then double the volume of your solution with distilled water.  Now the solution is ready to precipitate the gold back out of solution as a solid brown powder.   Now add a few table spoons of the Sodium Metabisulfite to the gold solution. There needs to be room in the container to allow for fizzing.  Be sure to go outside for this step, as it releases noxious fumes.   

Stir the pot until everything turns cloudy brown and ugly.  The Na2S2O5 reacts in solution to steal the chlorine ions away from the gold, leaving the gold behind as solid metal.  So, let the gold settle and you can pour the liquid off and leave the gold powder in the coffee pot.  Filter the fluid in case any gold floats out with it, and save the fluid too, in case more gold is in solution.  Now it is time to refine the purity of the gold powder.  It may be disappointing to know that over half of the powder could still be copper.

Add more clean HCL to the powder, not a lot, just enough to swish it all around in.   Bring this to a boil while swishing from time to time.  Let it cool and pour off the acid.  Be sure to filter lest any gold float out, and save the acid for re-use.   Repeat the swish, boil, swish routine two more times with HCL and then 3 more times with distilled water.

The gold powder is now mostly pure.  We will also use potassium nitrate when we melt it to help burn off any remaining atoms of base metals like copper, nickel, iron, tin, and zinc.   The following materials are required at this time:
1. Graphite crucible
2. Borax
3. Potassium nitrate.

Transfer the gold powder to the graphite crucible.  For every spoon full of gold, add one spoon full of potassium nitrate and five spoon fulls of borax.   The crucible should not be over half-full at this point.  The borax does expand and bubble as it is heated.

To melt the gold, have these items ready:

1. Leather gloves
2. Furnace, acetylene torch, or my "microwave kiln kit" and a microwave oven
3  Graphite ingot mold, or carbonized iron mold
4. Tongs to handle and pour the hot graphite crucible

The microwave kiln is made from a light weight refractory fiber board.   It comes in two inch thick panels.  Aluminum silicate works well, and so do other similar refractory materials.  It can be easily cut into the correct shape with a drywall hole saw.  Two inches is a sufficient thickness of insulation around all points of the crucible to protect the microwave oven.

All metal melting should be done outside as well.  The insulation may off-gas worse on it's first time use.   It takes about 30 minutes to melt about 5 grams of gold in a regular 1000W kitchen microwave.  Be sure to watch closely and check frequently to make sure your microwave is not getting too hot.

If you need to stir the mixture of gold and borax, use a clean graphite rod.  Give the gold plenty of time to heat up in the microwave, and then have you tongs and mold ready so that you can flip the crucible quickly to pour out your gold into a graphite ingot mold.  A less expensive alternative is a piece of angle iron or cast iron depression.  Be sure to coat the surface of the iron with a layer of soot (from acetylene torch or candle.

Project End: Proper Waste Disposal and Recycling

 Please dispose of all materials, leftovers, acids, metals, and toxins appropriately.  This will help you get more gold out and save the little fishes of the sea.

Here is a list of additional items that are needed to recycle and dispose of the waste stream materials:

1.  Plastic storage bin
2.  five-gallon bucket with lid
3.  UPS power supply (or other source for 2 to 3V)
4.  Wire, electrical clips
5.  tywraps
6.  strong plastic bag
7.  10' x 1/2" PVC pipe
8.  graphite anodes - maybe be recovered from some D-cell batteries
9.  stainless steel straps and screws
10. PC fans
11. plastic mesh washable home A/C air filter
12. coffee pot (glassware capable of boiling fluids)
13. hotplate
14. 2' x 3/4" Copper pipe

The first step here is to verify that there are no precious metals remaining in the CuCl acid solution using the stannous chloride test.  If there is any suspicion that precious metals remain, a large scrap of copper can be added to the solution to make sure that all precious metals precipitate out of solution.   After some time is given to allow solids to settle, the waste fluid can be siphoned off the top and base metals can be removed via electrolysis.  Any sludges that form at the bottom of the bucket should be treated as if they contain precious metals, and they should be run back through the whole process with the next batch of gold bearing electronic scrap.

 Video: Making a graphite anode rack

A high-end UPS backup power supply can be used as the power source for the electrolytic tank, but do verify that the voltage settles in the 2V to 3V range when everything is hooked up.  If the voltage goes higher, gases will be generated, electricity will be wasted, and the surface quality of the copper plate will be jagged and unsalable. A plastic five-gallon bucket can still be used as the tank although a secondary containment system is recommended to catch spills and drips.  A plastic storage bin is adequate.

An anode rack should be made from graphite rods because the acid bath is too corrosive for any metal to exist on the anode (+) side of the electrolytic cell.  Graphite anodes can be recovered from some used D-cell batteries.  Besides the method shown in the video above, stainless steel screw clamps are another handy way to attach a lead wire to the graphite anodes.  In order to keep the solution free of solid particles, simply wrap the anodes with coffee filters since they will eventually deteriorate.  In the case of an electrolytic cell, the anode should be attached to the positive terminal of the power supply. 



Video: Prepare a copper starter plate to serve as the cathode.

The cathode, a flattened piece of copper pipe, should be attached to the negative terminal of the power supply.  Metal from the solution will accumulate on this copper starter plate.   If the rate of accumulation is too fast, and a rough surface develops, the voltage should be lowered and/or a physical barrier should be placed around the pipe to slow the ions in solution from getting access to the copper pipe.

On my first attempt, the rate of deposition of copper got too high at some locations on the starter plate.  That led to rough formations of copper deposits.  The copper would flake off in places, and that is not a desirable form to sale it in. The first thing to check is voltage if that happens.  If the voltage is staying between 2 and 3 volts, then you will need a physical barrier around the pipe to control deposition rates.   Cut the ends off flexible plastic drinking bottles and slide them over the copper plate.  It will be good if the plastic tubes are deformed into an oval shape in order to fit around the copper plate as that will prevent deposition on the edges of the copper plate.  Holes can be drilled into the plastic tube as needed to increase deposition if a higher rate is needed.


 
Video: Electro-cell operation and copper recovery

If you are starting with solution that is saturated with copper, it will be dark, opaque, and chemically it will have one copper ion associated with one chloride ion -- Cu(+)Cl(-) or just CuCl.  As electric current is run through the system, oxidation and reduction reactions occur and the result is that soon there will only be one copper ion available for every two chloride ions -- Cu(+2)Cl(-)2 or CuCl2.   The extra copper ions come out of solution as solid metal on your cathode plate.  You will know when that process is done because the solution will turn into a beautiful emerald green liquid that you can see through.

The solution can now be reused with a new batch of gold bearing electronic scrap.  This process helps save you the need to buy more clean HCL, and it reduces the volume of metallic salt bearing solution that must be disposed of in an environmentally friendly way later.

 
VideoCuCl solution ready for reuse.

If you continue to run current through the electrolytic cell, the rate of copper deposition will begin to fall sharply.  When the amount of copper ions drops below the number of chloride ions, the chlorine will begin to associate with hydrogen in the water, and regenerate the HCL in solution.  But, other reactions also occur which can lead to the generation of H2 and Cl2 gases.  That could possibly result in a fire risk, but also chlorine gas is very corrosive to tools or anything you have in the area.   There is no need to run the electrolysis for that long however.  Simply run it until the solution goes emerald green and clear, and it will be ready to dissolve more copper.

After your last batch, you must dispose of everything in a safe way, or find a market for all waste stream.  All solid materials must be washed repeatedly with clean water to get all the metal salts out.  To deal with the volume of water, you will need a dryer unit.  Fans from computers can be used with plastic buckets and plastic air filter mesh materials to evaporate the solutions.  As the solutions are re-concentrated, metals can be electroplated out again.  Finally as the solutions are dried completely though, only metallic salt crystals will remain.  These can be sent off for assay to a precious metal refiner.  For a fee, they will let you know exactly what metals are present.  Then you can plan best how to sell or dispose of the salts once their composition is known.





 


59 comments:

  1. Thank you, This the easiest and best read on the subject I have found, especially on proper clean - up. What is Sodium Metabisulfite powder ? and where do you get it ? Also for the microwave kiln where did you get your refractory fiber board ?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi, thanks.

      The sodium metabisulfite is readily available on eBay and it's inexpensive. I'm not sure of it's exact chemistry ... I'll Google it and update this post with that info soon.

      I got my refractory panels from:

      KT Refractories US Company
      3615 Elmridge st, Houston, TX, 77025
      Phone: 281-935-7219 Fax: 713-838-2248

      The item description is:

      2300F 2” X 24”X48”
      Ceramic Fiber Board

      I had to buy 2 full panels and have them shipped to me for $210. I'm working on producing a kit to sell from my blog here. If you would like a proto-type kit for $20 let me know. I will include 4) 6" x 6" squares of the material so that you would have an extra piece. I have a video on how to cut them out here:

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D8dLvqnXcC8

      Delete
    2. Just get stump out from local store in place of sodium metabisulfite

      Delete
    3. Everyone should check the chemistry of the stump out ... some stump out is actually potassium nitrate ... not sodium metabisulfite. Substitutions are great, but make sure you get the right stuff. For that item, i still recommend lab grade sodium metabisulfite from ebay -- otherwise you might be wondering why your gold doesn't precip out

      Delete
  2. Why do you use Bleach instead of Nitric acid to dissolve the gold? Also i tried to make some stannous chloride but the tin clumped together and settled to the bottom as solid chunks of tin, any suggestions

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. My methods are centered around the cheapest/easiest way for a person to get the gold purified at home. HCL from a swimming pool supply store and Clorox bleach are way cheaper and easier to get than nitric acid. I buy 4 gallons of HCL for $20. If you know how to get nitric that cheap, please share because I do want to use nitric to process some silver that I have.

      As for the stannous ... that's fine if there are clumps of tin at the bottom. In fact, if you keep stannous chloride for any length of time, you need to keep enough tin in there so that there are solid chunks in there. I get good test results simply by cutting off a 3/4" piece of 95% tin solder wire and dropping it in a coffee cup 1/4 full of 32% HCL (muriatic acid). Here's a video on that:

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vDw2H4O7IWk

      Skip ahead to about 1 minute into the above video, and you can see that there is still solid tin in the cup I'm making my stannous chloride in.

      Delete
    2. Greetings. It is your way to extract gold from ore 10-20 ounces per ton?

      Delete
  3. oh no i completely agree on what your saying when it comes to price. as soon as i saw that you were re-purposing a Mr coffee, i immediately hated you and praised your genius at the same time. I thought to myself it makes complete sense why didn't I see that. And I'm a hard core coffee drinker. Does the leech you use (HCL + Peroxide) work well regardless of the material and does it dissolve the base metals well.

    I haven't done any boards yet, I'm mostly doing connector pins and pins from boards and i did a straight HCL leech and it did remove the foils after 2 separate batches and left the metal. I think I had to much material.

    ReplyDelete
  4. Thanks for the compliment on coffee maker usage ... don't know if you saw the one coffee pot I used ... it's antique, and that's the only coffee item I feel guilty about using but it's old school flame proof and thick glass.

    I skip the peroxide these days. I only mention it because it does speed the process and I remember how big of hurry I was in on my first batch to get a bead of pure gold.

    Your problem with the pins reminds me of a batch I tried to run with gold plated jewelry. There was just too much base metal to dissolve and I ended up with a mess on that. Some of my gold started to plate back out on certain items. My idea to handle that is I'm going to build a tumbler. I'm saving a batch of pins and jewelry to use for that. I'll just throw it in a round plastic jug and tumble those items for a couple weeks with quartz sand. Then I plan to screen it to remove the larger chunks of base metal (remnants of pins and earrings) and then I'll leach the sand for the gold values. If you beat me to it, do a video and I'll post a link to it here.

    ReplyDelete
  5. Oh ... so more on the HCL leach, straight HCL or even CuCl (which is what you get after a little copper is dissolved) will dissolve all the base metal you want it to, given enough time. When it stops dissolving more metal, just add distilled water and (optionally more HCL).

    If you do set up the copper plating operation too -- the only time you really need fresh HCL is for the wash operations, and you barely need any at all for that.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I need a little help ! I got 14lb of pci boards how much gold will I get outta this .help needed

      Delete
    2. if whole cards add up to 14 lbs then you want to remove just the gold finger connector strips and sell rest of cards to scrap yard. you need several pounds of just connector strips to give enough gold to make it worth the trouble. Probably you don't have much more than $10 worth right now ... less than a gram of pure gold. It takes A LOT of e-scrap to get much gold.

      Delete
  6. Oh the other reason i asked about the Stannous Chloride is i have a solution that i ran HCL and nitric and it dissolved everything (very nice emerald green color). I've been dumping SMB into for 2 days now and it has dropped some gold but keeps showing positive for gold. so I'm not sure what is happening there.

    Don't get me wrong I've only processed 83g of pins since i started this whole venture so i know i shouldn't be expecting any thing like an ounce but for the amount of SMB i've dumped in it should have dropped all the gold by now.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. yikes, another tid-bit I should have mentioned ... once you put SMB in there, the stannous test will give a false positive, so you probably do have all the gold out.

      I haven't run pins myself yet, so I don't have a feel for what to expect from 83g, but I do know that on the batches I've run ... I get a lot less gold powder than I was expecting from the amount of foils I saw in my filters. Just to make sure, you maybe could dilute your solution with distilled water, dump some more SMB and let it set up for a week even. I set my jug at an angle so that when it does settle, I can pour off most of the solution without disturbing the gold sediment.

      Was your filter pretty well covered with the gold foils before you dissolved them?

      Delete
    2. ok classic board mistake i didn't read this before i posted a reply on the bottom msg. And no after look back over what i did, the only water added was from washing the beakers and the filter. i think i have left over nitric and the water would of helped that. yea there were foils in the filter. I beleive one of my major problems is, even though i know this whole process takes time, i got impatient and started doing peek a boo cooking.

      So I decided to leave everything alone and have not messed with it all Friday and Saturday. i will be going back into my garage today and seperate the liter of solution into either 2 500 ml batches or even smaller so i can add half the volume of distilled water and try again.

      Delete
    3. I have not run the process with nitric, but I have read about it. From what I understand, that stuff goes a long way ... like a teaspoon of nitric plus a few drops of HCL and enough distilled water to cover everything might have been all you needed to dissolve the foils. (I'm just guessing though since I didn't see how many foils you had).

      I'd be able to help more if you start another batch and dissolve the foils in HCL/Cl. It definitely takes a lot of material though. A good batch would be to take a pound of those gold finger tabs -- preferably from old computers ... although if you get them from memory sticks on newer computers, that's a good source too. One pound of gold fingers will yield a pure gold bead that is at least a gram or so.

      The first run is especially hard because it seems like most of the gold just coats the surfaces of all the equipment. I had much better results by the time I got to my 2nd and 3rd batch. So, keep after it, you'll get there.

      Delete
    4. I agree, I have a lot of raw material, i just need to break it all down so i can start the process. I'm thinking I'm going to remove any excess material, i.e. if the pin is an inch long but only a half inch is plated then i will trim the extra off. and I'm going to take a page out of Ron Popeil's book and set it and forget it.

      Delete
  7. yeah i was really interested in the whole recycling the HCL. Yeah i can buy it by the gallon at lowes but if i can re-use, then that's definitely the way to go. Plus I would like to get the copper back. $3 a lb is worth some effort.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. good, i was excited when the copper plating experiment worked. Some guy that left a message on one of the videos told me that trick of getting the graphite anodes from spent D-cell batteries ... although i have since bought some larger anodes to ramp up my operation. I've been thinking about getting a solar panel to go with it too so my electricity is free and it all uses DC power anyway.

      Delete
    2. yeah i was thinking the same thing about a solar rig. that way i could put a converter in so i can supply power to the fume hood i'm building, the hot plate and a rig for the copper. so like i said before i dumped a crazy amount of SMB into my solution, heated it, let it sit over night and i came back to look at it and everything had redissolved and it turned a candy apple green and supper clear. Ideas?

      Delete
  8. Wow...This is what i have been looking for and you have done a great job. Beautiful cards.
    Scrapbooking

    ReplyDelete
  9. Someone asked how much gold to expect from 14 pounds of pci cards. Unfortunately, the answer is: not much. At a scrap yard, you can get about $14 for them as is. You can cut off the gold finger connector strips and still get $3.50 for the rest of the card material. So, at best, you've got $11.50 worth of gold there ... less than a gram of pure gold. Now, if you have 14 pounds of gold finger strips already separated from the rest of the pci cards, then you can expect a few grams of pure gold ... although some pci cards have very little gold these days ... older = better.

    ReplyDelete
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  11. The rate of disposal of E-waste has really increased to great extent due to increase in companies.This really created problem as disposal is openly thrown and it really degrade the environment conditions.
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  12. My ad was ignored. Chance of your way to extract gold from ore containing from 1 to 20 oz. Thank you.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Sorry your ad was ignored ... can you give more details about what or where you tried to post?

      As for processing ore, I think it is a lot of work. I might try putting it all in a big plastic 55 gallon drum ... half full of rock and water. Build a windmill powered roller to tumble and crush the rock. Add some jet dry to the water so no particles float on it.

      Once all the rock is crushed fine as powder, agitate the barrel and let it settle. Then remove the dirt on top. The idea is to concentrate the gold bearing minerals.

      Then I'd build a coal furnace and melt the concentrated fines with borax and KNO3 ... see what you get.

      Delete
    2. Thank you very much for answering. I-ground ore concentrate to the chemical content of gold. Free gold is washed. I need a way to transfer gold ions in solution or chloride or thiourea. Melting method with lead I know, but I wanted to give up the heat. What do you advise?

      Delete
    3. Please use borax rather than lead to purify gold ... much safer for you and the environment! Any large scale operation will be best using heat to purify. Melting is easy ... even can use microwave ovens or build a kiln using heating element from an old dryer ... lot's of ways to melt the gold. http://mrmoneyhustler.blogspot.com/p/microwave-kiln-kit-melt-gold-and-other.html

      The only chemistry I can speak to is the method I've presented here. I would definitely wash all my "cons" (black sands in the bottom of the barrel with the gold) with the HCL-Clorox mixture to try and dissolve any fine gold that I might have missed during my mechanical separation process.

      Delete
    4. I know a way to melt with lead. The problem is that a lot of concentrate to melt 1 ton (100gallonov) melted in a microwave oven is not cost-effective. Wanted to find a way of transferring gold solution with chlorine or thiourea and then cemented. In theory, everything is clear, and, in practice, would like to see. Here is my email if you can write on nee-serge197127@gmail.com

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    Internet related work
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